RESEARCH PAPER
Optimisation of thinning of apple fruitlets cv. 'Braeburn Mariri Red'
Iwona Szot 1  
,   Tomasz Lipa 1
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Horticultural Production, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Iwona Szot   

Institute of Horticultural Production, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 28, 20-612, Lublin, Poland
Final revision date: 2020-01-09
Acceptance date: 2020-01-09
Publication date: 2020-02-05
 
Acta Agroph. 2019, 26(3), 65–76
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Apple blossom or fruitlet thinning is currently the basic care treatment in the production of apples for dessert fruit. It determines the regularity, levels and quality of yields. The fastest method of fruitlet thinning is chemical thinning performed by means of registered purpose-developed preparations. The response of apple trees to chemical thinning is largely dependent on the genetic traits and on the physiological status of the tree, and on the climatic conditions in a given season. Braeburn, and especially its coloured mutations, e.g. Braeburn Mariri Red, is a prospective cultivar for cultivation in Poland, as it stores well without loss of firmness. In addition it is characterised by more sour flesh taste compared to popular apples of cultivars ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Gala’ or ‘Jonagold’, due to which it can be in demand in periods when apples of cv. ‘Antonówka’ are no longer available. The study analysed the effect of the Polish-registered preparations Brevis 150 SG and MaxCel on the level and quality of yield of cultivar ‘Braeburn Mariri Red’. Each of the methods of thinning caused a significant improvement of fruit size relative to the control. Only the application of MaxCel at the lower dose of 5l ha–1 proved to be completely ineffective in both seasons of the experiment due to the lack of any improvement in yield structure, in fruit weight, and also in fruit diameter and height. The application of Brevis at 1.1 kg ha–1 and of MaxCel at 7.5 l ha–1 produced similar effects on the level and structure of yield, but apples from trees treated with Brevis at 1.1 kg ha–1 were characterised by notably higher fresh firmness. The best effects of thinning were noted after the combined application of the preparations MaxCel/Brevis, as the yield was notably lower than in the control treatment, and the fruits were characterised by the highest values of the analysed quality parameters, i.e. fruit weight, diameter, height, and content of extract and dry matter.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The Authors does not declare conflict of interest
 
REFERENCES (28)
1.
Bound S.A., Jones K.M., Oakford M.J., 1997. Post-bloom thinning with 6-benzyladenine. Acta Hortic., 463, 493-499, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaH....
 
2.
Bubán T., 2000. The use of benzyladenine in orchard fruit growing: a mini review. Plant Growth Regulation, 32, 381-390, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010....
 
3.
Buszard D.J., Schwabe W.W., 1995. Effect of previous crop load on stigmatic morphology of apple flowers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 120, 4, 566-570, https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS....
 
4.
Byers R.E., 2002. Influence of temperature and darkness on apple fruit abscission and chemical thinning. J. Tree Fruit Prod., 3(1), 41-52, https://doi.org/10.1300/J072v0....
 
5.
De Salvador F.R., Fisichella M., Fontanari M., 2006. Correlation between fruit size and fruit quality in Apple trees with high and standard crop load levels. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant. Res., 14, 113-122.
 
6.
Elfving D.C., Cline, R.A., 1993. Benzyladenine and other chemicals for thinning ‘Empire’ apple trees. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 118(5), 593-598, https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS....
 
7.
Ferree D.C., 1996. Performance of benzyladenine as a chemical thinner on eight apple cultivars. J. Tree Fruit Prod., 1, 33-50, https://doi.org/10.1300/J072v0....
 
8.
Gabardo G.C., Petri J.L., Hawerroth T.J., Couto M., Argenta L.C., Kretzschmar A.A., 2017. Use of metamitron as an apple thinner. Rev. Bras. Frutic., 39(3), e-514, https://doi.org/10.1590/ 0100-29452017514.
 
9.
Greene D.W., 1993. A review of the use of benzyladenine (BA) as a chemical thinner for apples. Acta Hortic., 329, 231-236, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaH....
 
10.
Greene D.W., 2002. Chemicals, timing and environmental factors involved in thinner efficacy on apple. Hort. Sci., 37, 477-481, https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTS....
 
11.
Greene D.W., 2005. Effects of repeated yearly application of chemical thinners on ‘McIntosh’ apples. Hort. Sci., 40, 401-403, https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTS....
 
12.
Greene D.W., Antio W.R., Miller P., 1990. Thinning activity of benzyladenine on several apple cultivars. Hort. Sci., 117(5), 775-779.
 
13.
Jaeger S.R., Andani Z., Wakeling I.N., MacFie H.J.H., 1998. Consumer preferences for fresh and aged apples: a cross-cultural comparison. Food Qual. Pref., 9(5), 355-366, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-....
 
14.
Link H., 2000. Significance of flower and fruit thinning on fruit quality. Plant Growth Regul., 31, 17-26, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006....
 
15.
McArtney S.J., Obermiller J.D., 2014. Use of shading and psII inhibitor metamitron to investigate the relationship between carbohydrate balance and chemical thinner activity in apples. Acta Hortic., 1042, 27-31, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaH....
 
16.
McLaughlin J.M., Greene D.W., 1984. Effects of BA, GA4+7and daminozide on fruit set, fruit quality, vegetative growth, flower initiation and flower quality of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples. Hortic. Sci., 109, 34-39.
 
17.
Mehinagic E., Royer G., Symoneaux R., Jourjon F., 2006. Relationship between Apple sensory attributes and instrumental parameters of texture. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res., 14(2), 25-37.
 
18.
Meland M., 2009. Effects of different crop loads and thinning practices on yield, fruit quality and return bloom in Malus x domestica Borkh. ‘Elstar’. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech., 84(6), 117-121, https://doi.org/10.1080/146203....
 
19.
Olien W.C., Bukovac M.J., 1971. Factors influencing the penetration of napthaleneacetamide into leaves of pear (Pyrus communis L.) J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 96, 240-246.
 
20.
Palmer J.W., Giuliani R., Adams H.M., 1997. Effect of crop load on fruiting and leaf photosynthesis of ‘Braeburn’/M26 apples trees. Tree Physiol., 17(11), 741-746, https://doi.org/10.1093/treeph....
 
21.
Radivojevic D., Milivojevic J., Pavlovic M., Stopar M., 2019. Comparison of metamitron efficiency for postbloom thinning of `Gala’ and `Golden Delicious’ young apple trees. Turk. J. Agric. For., 43, 1-12.
 
22.
Schwabe W.W., 1978. Growth regulators and the control of development in fruit trees. British Crop Protection Monogr., 21, 143-157.
 
23.
Telias A., Lin-Wang K., Stevenson D., Cooney J., Hellens R., Allan A., Hoover E., Brodeen J., 2011. Apple skin pattering is associated with differential expression of MYB10. BMC Plant Biol., 11, 93, https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2....
 
24.
Wertheim S.J. 1998. Chemical thinning of deciduous fruit trees. Acta Hortic., 463, 445-462, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaH....
 
25.
Williams M.W., 1994. Factors influencing chemical thinning and update on new chemical thinning agents. Compact Fruit Tree, 27: 115-122.
 
26.
Wismer P.T., Proctor J.T.A., 1995. Benzyladenine affects cell division and cell size during apple fruit thinning. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 120(5), 802-807, https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS....
 
27.
Wünsche J.N., Ferguson I.B., 2005. Crop load interaction in Apple. Hort Rev., 31, 231-290, https://doi.org/10.1002/978047....
 
28.
Wünsche J.N., Palmer J.W. Greer D.H., 2000. Effects of crop load on fruiting and gas-exchange characteristics of ‘Braeburn’/M26 apple trees at full canopy. J. Am. Soc. Horticul. Sci., 125(1), 93-99, https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS....
 
eISSN:2300-6730
ISSN:1234-4125