RESEARCH PAPER
Peat ecosystems of Polesie (kinds and structural changes)
 
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Department of Nature Protection on Rural Areas of Institute for Land Reclamation, and Grassland Farming in Falenty, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
Publication date: 2020-11-17
 
Acta Agroph. 2002, (66), 121–145
 
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ABSTRACT
The Lublin Polesie and the Wołyń Polesie, situated in Poland, are two geographical units – macroregions, which are part of a vast region of Polesie which reaches far east of the river Bug. Numerous peatlands have been formed in those units as a result of specific physiographic conditions. They differ both in their genesis and stratigraphy and in size. In the region of Lublin Polesie, 677 documented peat deposits occupy 10.5% of the area. Statistically, each 100 km2 of the region discussed has 15 deposits, and averages decreasing their surface area, thickness and ash content of peat amount to 72 km2, 1.2 m and 19.7%, respectively. The share of raised bogs and transition bogs equals 1.35 and 0.73%, respectively, of the total surface of the peatlands of the region. Among the fens, tall-sedge peats are the most frequent ones as they occupy 45.4% of the deposit area. Among the main types of floristic composition of the peatlands of Lublin Polesie, antropogenetic communities of slightly moist and dry grass lands have the largest share. They occupy 64% of the area of peatlands. Shrub and forest vegetation occupies 14%, transitional bog communities – 9%, moss vegetation – 7% of the area. In the region of the Wołyn Polesie, peatlands occupy 11.6% of its area. In total, 526 deposits have been documented here, among which carbonate peatlands should be mentioned for they are a specific and rather rare category of peat deposits. The basins of these peatlands represent different typological categories of the so-called writing chalk karst. Each 100 km2 of the unit discussed includes 25 peatlands the averages of which concerning the area of peat sediment, its thickness and ash content equal: 46.2 ha, 1.29 m and 17.9%, respectively. Deposits developed from tall-sedge peats have the biggest share – they occupy 71.8% of the fens surface in the region. Raised bogs and transition bogs occupy only 0.07 and 0.02% of the total area of the region's peatlands. The peatlands of the macroregion are dominated by the communities of cultivated slightly moist and dry grasslands (63% of the area) and extensively managed wet and moist grasslands (15%). Forests and shrub communities, on the other hand, occupy 13% of the area. Considerable changes in water circulation in Polesie that occurred after the construction of the Wieprz-Krzna Canal (in 1961) caused drainage of most of the local natural peatlands and their conversion into agricultural areas, mainly meadows and pastures. The peat-moorsh soils formed on the dewatered peat deposits, most of which are now in their medium moorshifying stage (MtII), represent a decession phase in the development of postbog peat soils, connected with their gradual disappearance caused by a progressive mineralisation of peat. Currently, mainly transition bogs and raised bogs within forests or around overgrowing lakes remain unchanged, most of them under protection in nature reserves. Projects for a further increase of the acreage of the protected are-as are being developed – among them a project for renaturalisation of some of the fens in view of reintroducing their natural and landscape peculiarities.
METADATA IN OTHER LANGUAGES:
Polish
Ekosystemy torfowiskowe Polesia (rodzaje i przemiany strukturalne)
torfowiska, Polesie Lubelskie, Polesie Wołyńskie, makroregiony, szata roślinna
W artykule zamieszczono charakterystykę stanu zatorfienia Polesia Zachodniego zwanego również Lubelskim oraz Polesia Wołyńskiego. Elementami składowymi charakterystyki są zestawione w układzie regionalnym dane dotyczące ilości torfowisk i ich powierzchni, liczby torfowisk przypadającej na 100 km2 danego regionu, średniej powierzchni złoża i jego miąższości oraz średniej popielności torfu tworzącego złoże. Określony został także procentowy udział, jaki w tworzeniu złóż zajmują podstawowe genetyczne rodzaje torfów niskich oraz jaki areał w ogólnej powierzchni torfowisk przypada na złoża przejściowe i wysokie. Uzupełnieniem charakterystyki jest szata roślinna, obejmująca procentowy udział zasadniczych typów roślinności porastającej torfowiska omawianych regionów. Ponadto w artykule scharakteryzowano zmiany, jakie w ekosystemach torfowiskowych Polesia wywołane zostały działalnością melioracyjną, a także aktualny stan przeobrażenia pobagiennych gleb torfowych oraz kierunki ich przemian, determinowane decesją materii organicznej.
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ISSN:1234-4125